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Cognition and Instruction

Cognition and Instruction PDF Author: Sharon M. Carver
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135648980
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 556

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Book Description
This volume is based on papers presented at the 30th Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition. This particular symposium was conceived in reference to the 1974 symposium entitled Cognition and Instruction. In the 25 years since that symposium, reciprocal relationships have been forged between psychology and education, research and practice, and laboratory and classroom learning contexts. Synergistic advances in theories, empirical findings, and instructional practice have been facilitated by the establishment of new interdisciplinary journals, teacher education courses, funding initiatives, and research institutes. So, with all of this activity, where is the field of cognition and instruction? How much progress has been made in 25 years? What remains to be done? This volume proposes and illustrates some exciting and challenging answers to these questions. Chapters in this volume describe advances and challenges in four areas, including development and instruction, teachers and instructional strategies, tools for learning from instruction, and social contexts of instruction and learning. Detailed analyses of tasks, subjects' knowledge and processes, and the changes in performance over time have led to new understanding of learners' representations, their use of multiple strategies, and the important role of metacognitive processes. New methods for assessing and tracking the development and elaboration of knowledge structures and processing strategies have yielded new conceptualizations of the process of change. Detailed cognitive analysis of expert teachers, as well as a direct focus on enhancing teachers' cognitive models of learners and use of effective instructional strategies, are other areas that have seen tremendous growth and refinement in the past 25 years. Similarly, the strong impact of curriculum materials and activities based on a thorough cognitive analysis of the task has been extended to the use of technological tools for learning, such as intelligent tutors and complex computer based instructional interfaces. Both the shift to conducting a significant portion of the cognition and instruction research in real classrooms and the increased collaboration between academics and educators have brought the role of the social context to center stage.

Cognition and Instruction

Cognition and Instruction PDF Author: Sharon M. Carver
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135648980
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 556

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Book Description
This volume is based on papers presented at the 30th Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition. This particular symposium was conceived in reference to the 1974 symposium entitled Cognition and Instruction. In the 25 years since that symposium, reciprocal relationships have been forged between psychology and education, research and practice, and laboratory and classroom learning contexts. Synergistic advances in theories, empirical findings, and instructional practice have been facilitated by the establishment of new interdisciplinary journals, teacher education courses, funding initiatives, and research institutes. So, with all of this activity, where is the field of cognition and instruction? How much progress has been made in 25 years? What remains to be done? This volume proposes and illustrates some exciting and challenging answers to these questions. Chapters in this volume describe advances and challenges in four areas, including development and instruction, teachers and instructional strategies, tools for learning from instruction, and social contexts of instruction and learning. Detailed analyses of tasks, subjects' knowledge and processes, and the changes in performance over time have led to new understanding of learners' representations, their use of multiple strategies, and the important role of metacognitive processes. New methods for assessing and tracking the development and elaboration of knowledge structures and processing strategies have yielded new conceptualizations of the process of change. Detailed cognitive analysis of expert teachers, as well as a direct focus on enhancing teachers' cognitive models of learners and use of effective instructional strategies, are other areas that have seen tremendous growth and refinement in the past 25 years. Similarly, the strong impact of curriculum materials and activities based on a thorough cognitive analysis of the task has been extended to the use of technological tools for learning, such as intelligent tutors and complex computer based instructional interfaces. Both the shift to conducting a significant portion of the cognition and instruction research in real classrooms and the increased collaboration between academics and educators have brought the role of the social context to center stage.

Cognitive Psychology and Instruction

Cognitive Psychology and Instruction PDF Author: Alan Lesgold
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468425358
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 525

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Book Description
Sipke D. Fokkema Amsterdam, Free University From June 13th - 17th, 1977 the NATO International Conference on Cognitive Psychology and Instruction, organized by the editors of this volume, took place at the Free University of Amsterdam. During this period approximately 150 psychologists representing 15 countries assembled for an exchange of scientific experiences and ideas. The broad aim of the conference, as indicated by its title, was to explore the extent to which theoretical and methodological developments in cognitive psychology might provide useful knowledge with regard to the design and management of instruction. From a great variety of submitted papers the organizers attempted to select those that represented major problem areas being scientifically studied in several countries. For the organization of this book we chose to categorize the contributions according to the following general areas: I. Learning II. Comprehension and Information Structure III. Perceptual and Memory Processes in Reading IV. Problem Solving and Components of Intelligence V. Cognitive Development VI. Approaches to Instruction The final paper in the volume is an extensive review and summary by Glaser, Pellegrino, and Lesgold, that examines the state Qf cognitive psychology (mainly as reflected in the contributions in this volume) with regard to instructional purposes. Each of the sections of the book also begins with a brief overview of the specific topics considered by the individual contributors within that section.

Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction

Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction PDF Author: Lorna Idol
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135434700
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 482

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Book Description
This volume is a comprehensive guide to state-of-the-art research on thinking, cognitive instruction, social values, and reform. Cognitive instruction for at-risk students is discussed in great detail along with a thorough examination of the teaching of thinking skills from the viewpoint of educational values and school culture. The issues of thinking, learning, and cognitive instruction are linked to the educational reform movement from numerous perspectives. Specifically, the reader can better anticipate which aspects of research on thinking will conflict with existing paradigms and which aspects of schooling will be most resistant to change.

Cognition and Instruction

Cognition and Instruction PDF Author: Ronna F. Dillon
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080885837
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 390

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Book Description
Cognition and Instruction focuses on the relationship of knowledge acquisition processes with instruction, including reading, writing, mathematics, curriculum design and reform, and reasoning. The selection first takes a look at the issues in cognitive psychology and instruction, reading, and writing. Discussions focus on the processes of knowledge acquisition, cognitive prescriptions for teaching, cognitive components of reading, instruction in reading, distinctive nature of higher order mental activity in written composition, and knowledge-transforming procedures within the general context of higher order skills. The publication also offers information on second language and mathematics. The text ponders on science, social studies, and art. Topics include psychological research related to curriculum design, science curriculum reform, curriculum and instructional components of social studies and social sciences, evidence for individual styles in young children, educational considerations, and concept of style. The text then examines music and reasoning. The selection is a valuable source of data for readers and cognitive psychologists pursuing research on the relationship of cognition and instruction. The most recent developments in cognitive psychology Up-to-date literature reviews Chapter on training reasoning Active, renowned contributing authors

Cognitive Load Theory

Cognitive Load Theory PDF Author: Fred Paas
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135065802
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 80

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Book Description
The papers of this special issue demonstrate that cognitive load theory provides the framework for investigations into cognitive processes and instructional design. The genesis of Cognitive Load Theory emerged from an international symposium organized at the bi-annual conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction in 2001 in Fribourg, Switzerland. Most of the papers are based on contributions to that symposium and discuss the most recent work carried out within the cognitive load framework. As a whole, this issue is demonstrating that cognitive load theory is continuing its role of using cognitive psychology principles to generate novel instructional design procedures.

Advances in Cognitive Load Theory

Advances in Cognitive Load Theory PDF Author: Sharon Tindall-Ford
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000022870
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 248

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Book Description
Cognitive load theory uses our knowledge of how people learn, think and solve problems to design instruction. In turn, instructional design is the central activity of classroom teachers, of curriculum designers, and of publishers of textbooks and educational materials, including digital information. Characteristically, the theory is used to generate hypotheses that are tested using randomized controlled trials. Cognitive load theory rests on a base of hundreds of randomized controlled trials testing many thousands of primary and secondary school children as well as adults. That research has been conducted by many research groups from around the world and has resulted in a wide range of novel instructional procedures that have been tested for effectiveness. Advances in Cognitive Load Theory, in describing current research, continues in this tradition. Exploring a wide range of instructional issues dealt with by the theory, it covers all general curriculum areas critical to educational and training institutions and outlines recent extensions to other psycho-educational constructs including motivation and engagement. With contributions from the leading figures from around the world, this book provides a one-stop-shop for the latest in cognitive load theory research and guidelines for how the findings can be applied in practice.

Transfer on Trial

Transfer on Trial PDF Author: Douglas K. Detterman
Publisher: Praeger
ISBN:
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 312

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Book Description
The importance of transfer for understanding intelligence, cognition, and education has been debated for a century, as it has been one of the central theoretical issues in psychology, education, and cognition. Education theories are based on the assumption that students will transfer what they learn in school to new situations. But what if transfer does not occur? Much of current educational practice could be called into question. This book presents views on the status of transfer research. Detterman argues that there is little evidence to support the existence of the transfer of complex skills such as those usually taught in school. Contributors Earl C. Butterfield and James G. Greeno argue that transfer not only exists but that it is fundamental to complex cognitive performance. Other contributors take intermediate positions, presenting a review of transfer studies in applied domains. These authors explore the situations in which transfer can or cannot occur.

Handbook of Epistemic Cognition

Handbook of Epistemic Cognition PDF Author: Jeffrey A. Greene
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317746872
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 542

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Book Description
The Handbook of Epistemic Cognition brings together leading work from across disciplines, to provide a comprehensive overview of an increasingly important topic: how people acquire, understand, justify, change, and use knowledge in formal and informal contexts. Research into inquiry, understanding, and discovery within academic disciplines has progressed from general models of conceptual change to a focus upon the learning trajectories that lead to expert-like conceptualizations, skills, and performance. Outside of academic domains, issues of who and what to believe, and how to integrate multiple sources of information into coherent and useful knowledge, have arisen as primary challenges of the 21st century. In six sections, scholars write within and across fields to focus and advance the role of epistemic cognition in education. With special attention to how researchers across disciplines can communicate and collaborate more effectively, this book will be an invaluable resource for anyone interested in the future of knowledge and knowing. Dr. Jeffrey A. Greene is an associate professor of Learning Sciences and Psychological Studies in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. William A. Sandoval is a professor in the division of Urban Schooling at the UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies. Dr. Ivar BrĂ¥ten is a professor of Educational Psychology at the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University of Oslo, Norway.

Computers As Cognitive Tools

Computers As Cognitive Tools PDF Author: Susanne P. Lajoie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136475478
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 416

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Book Description
Highlighting and illustrating several important and interesting theoretical trends that have emerged in the continuing development of instructional technology, this book's organizational framework is based on the notion of two opposing camps. One evolves out of the intelligent tutoring movement, which employs artificial-intelligence technologies in the service of student modeling and precision diagnosis, and the other emerges from a constructivist/developmental perspective that promotes exploration and social interaction, but tends to reject the methods and goals of the student modelers. While the notion of opposing camps tends to create an artificial rift between groups of researchers, it represents a conceptual distinction that is inherently more interesting and informative than the relatively meaningless divide often drawn between "intelligent" and "unintelligent" instructional systems. An evident trend is that researchers in both "camps" view their computer learning environments as "cognitive tools" that can enhance learning, performance, and understanding. Cognitive tools are objects provided by the instructional environment that allow students to incorporate new auxiliary methods or symbols into their social problem solving which otherwise would be unavailable. A final section of the book represents researchers who are assimilating and accommodating the wisdom and creativity of their neighbors from both camps, perhaps forming the look of technology for the future. When the idea of model tracing in a computer-based environment is combined with appreciation for creative mind-extension cognitive tools and for how a community of learners can facilitate learning, a camp is created where AI technologists and social constructivist learning theorists can feel equally at home.

The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development

The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development PDF Author: Usha Goswami
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405191163
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 816

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Book Description
This definitive volume is the result of collaboration by top scholars in the field of children's cognition. New edition offers an up-to-date overview of all the major areas of importance in the field, and includes new data from cognitive neuroscience and new chapters on social cognitive development and language Provides state-of-the-art summaries of current research by international specialists in different areas of cognitive development Spans aspects of cognitive development from infancy to the onset of adolescence Includes chapters on symbolic reasoning, pretend play, spatial development, abnormal cognitive development and current theoretical perspectives