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The Causes of War and the Spread of Peace

The Causes of War and the Spread of Peace PDF Author: Azar Gat
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198795025
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 318

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Book Description
The causes of war - why people fight - is one of the big questions of human existence. Azar Gat's book, ranging from the beginning of prehistory to the 21st century, offers a definitive answer to the lingering mystery.

The Causes of War and the Spread of Peace

The Causes of War and the Spread of Peace PDF Author: Azar Gat
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198795025
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 318

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Book Description
The causes of war - why people fight - is one of the big questions of human existence. Azar Gat's book, ranging from the beginning of prehistory to the 21st century, offers a definitive answer to the lingering mystery.

The Causes of War and the Spread of Peace

The Causes of War and the Spread of Peace PDF Author: Azar Gat
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192514237
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 320

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Book Description
Azar Gat sets out to resolve one of the age-old questions of human existence: why people fight and can they stop. Spanning warfare from prehistory to the 21st century, the book shows that, neither an irresistible drive nor a cultural invention, deadly violence and warfare have figured prominently in our behavioural toolkit since the dawn of our species. People have always alternated between cooperation, peaceful competition, and violence to attain evolution-shaped human desires. A marked shift in the balance between these options has occurred since the onset of the industrial age. Rather than modern war becoming more costly (it hasn't), it is peace that has become more rewarding. Scrutinizing existing theories concerning the decline of war - such as the 'democratic peace' and 'capitalist peace' - Gat shows that they in fact partake of a broader Modernization Peace that has been growing since 1815. By now, war has disappeared within the world's most developed areas. Finally, Gat explains why the Modernization Peace has been disrupted in the past, as during the two World Wars, and how challenges to it may still arise. They include claimants to alternative modernity - such as China and Russia - anti-modernists, and failed modernizers that may spawn terrorism, potentially unconventional. While the world has become more peaceful than ever before, there is still much to worry about in terms of security and no place for complacency.

Theories of War and Peace

Theories of War and Peace PDF Author: Michael E. Brown
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262522526
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 610

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Book Description
New approaches to understanding war and peace in the changing international system. What causes war? How can wars be prevented? Scholars and policymakers have sought the answers to these questions for centuries. Although wars continue to occur, recent scholarship has made progress toward developing more sophisticated and perhaps more useful theories on the causes and prevention of war. This volume includes essays by leading scholars on contemporary approaches to understanding war and peace. The essays include expositions, analyses, and critiques of some of the more prominent and enduring explanations of war. Several authors discuss realist theories of war, which focus on the distribution of power and the potential for offensive war. Others examine the prominent hypothesis that the spread of democracy will usher in an era of peace. In light of the apparent increase in nationalism and ethnic conflict, several authors present hypotheses on how nationalism causes war and how such wars can be controlled. Contributors also engage in a vigorous debate on whether international institutions can promote peace. In a section on war and peace in the changing international system, several authors consider whether rising levels of international economic independence and environmental scarcity will influence the likelihood of war.

War and Strategy in the Modern World

War and Strategy in the Modern World PDF Author: Azar Gat
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351802798
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 186

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Book Description
This volume brings together some of Professor Azar Gat's most significant articles on the evolution of strategic doctrines and the transformation of war during the 20th and early 21st centuries. It sheds new light on the rise of the German Panzer arm and the doctrine of Blitzkrieg between the two world wars; explores the factors behind the formation of strategic policy and military doctrine in the world war era and during the cold war; and explains why counterinsurgency has become such a problem. The book concludes with the spread of peace in the developed world, challenged as it is by the rise of the authoritarian-capitalist great powers – China and Russia – and by the chilling prospect of unconventional terrorism. This last essay summarizes the author's latest research and has not previously been published in article form. This collection will be of much interest to students of strategic studies, military history, and international relations.

The Political Economy of War and Peace

The Political Economy of War and Peace PDF Author: Murray Wolfson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781461372516
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 347

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Book Description
cancer n. any malignant tumor . . . Metastasis may occur via the bloodstream or the lymphatic channels or across body cavities . . . setting up secondary tumors . . . Each individual primary tumor has its own pattern . . . There are probably many causative factors . . . Treatment. . . depends on the type of tumor, the site of the primary tumor and the extent of the spread. (Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary 1996, 97) Let us begin by stating the obvious. Acts of organized violence are not necessarily of human nature, but they are endogenous events arising within the an intrinsic part evolution of complex systems of social interaction. To be sure, all wars have features in common - people are killed and property is destroyed - but in their origin wars are likely to be at least as different as the social structures from which they arise. Consequently, it is unlikely that there can be a simple theory of the causes of war or the maintenance of peace. The fact that wars are historical events need not discourage us. On the contrary, we should focus our understanding of the dimensions of each conflict, or classes of conflict, on the conjuncture of causes at hand. It follows that the study of conflict must be an interdisciplinary one. It is or a penchant for eclecticism that leads to that conclusion, but the not humility multi-dimensionality of war itself.

What Causes War?

What Causes War? PDF Author: Greg Cashman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 0742566528
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 622

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Book Description
Now in a thoroughly revised and updated edition, this classic text presents a comprehensive survey of the many alternative theories that attempt to explain the causes of interstate war. For each theory, Greg Cashman examines the arguments and counterarguments, considers the empirical evidence and counterevidence generated by social-science research, looks at historical applications of the theory, and discusses the theory’s implications for restraining international violence. Among the questions he explores are: Are humans aggressive by nature? Do individual differences among leaders matter? How might poor decision making procedures lead to war? Why do leaders engage in seemingly risky and irrational policies that end in war? Why do states with internal conflicts seem to become entangled in wars with their neighbors? What roles do nationalism and ethnicity play in international conflict? What kinds of countries are most likely to become involved in war? Why have certain pairs of countries been particularly war-prone over the centuries? Can strong states deter war? Can we find any patterns in the way that war breaks out? How do balances of power or changes in balances of power make war more likely? Do social scientists currently have an answer to the question of what causes war? Cashman examines theories of war at the individual, substate, nation-state, dyadic, and international systems level of analysis. Written in a clear and accessible style, this interdisciplinary text will be essential reading for all students of international relations.

The Rise and Fall of Peace on Earth

The Rise and Fall of Peace on Earth PDF Author: Michael Mandelbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0190935936
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 233

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Book Description
In The Rise and Fall of Peace on Earth, Michael Mandelbaum examines the peaceful quarter century after the end of the Cold War. He describes how the period came about and why it ended, arguing that individual countries overturned peaceful, political, and military arrangements in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, thereby affecting the rest of the world. He also probes prospects for the revival of peace in the future and stresses the importance of democracy and civil liberties across borders.

Military Innovation in Türkiye

Military Innovation in Türkiye PDF Author: Barış Ateş
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1000834174
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 254

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Book Description
This book explores Turkish military innovation since the Cold War. The major questions addressed are how Türkiye has been able to innovate, the production of new weapon systems, its philosophical background, how the country overcame bureaucratic and economic obstacles, and how these innovations resonated in military doctrine and organization. Focusing on two main defense industry projects that trigger an overall change in the military doctrine and organization, the text examines the innovative inclinations of the Turkish military realm and reveals the societal, economic and political consequences of military innovation. This book fills a gap in the literature by providing an interdisciplinary and comprehensive overview of Turkish military innovation. Contributors include those involved in and affected by the military innovation process, as well as scholars who monitor the process using primary sources. Military Innovation in Türkiye will appeal to academics, politicians and military professionals interested in understanding the evolution of the Turkish military.

The Diffusion of War

The Diffusion of War PDF Author: Randolph M. Siverson
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 9780472102471
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 168

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Book Description
A study of wars and what causes them to expand

Ideological Fixation

Ideological Fixation PDF Author: Azar Gat
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0197646700
Category : Ideology
Languages : en
Pages : 353

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Book Description
"This book was undertaken before the terms 'fake news' and 'alternative facts' were coined and the further escalation of America's ideological civil war. It was prompted by deep wonderment at the way people tend to be wholly enclosed within their ideological frames and deaf to claims about reality that come from the opposite camp, no matter how valid they might be. Ideology consists of normative prescriptions regarding how society should be shaped, together with an interpretive roadmap indicating how this normative vision can be implemented in reality. Ideological fixation is the result of tensions and conflicts between these two elements. The book does not focus on the normative aspect of ideology, which is largely subjective, but on its factual claims about the world, typically subordinate to, and often distorted by, the normative commitment. After theorists around 1960 proclaimed the 'death of ideology', ideological divides and clashes have reemerged with renewed intensity throughout the world, including in the liberal democracies. In the United States they have become particularly venomous. The other side is widely viewed as malicious, irrational or downright stupid, and, often, as barely legitimate. The zeal of the opposing sides is often scarcely less than that which characterized the religious ideologies of old. Indeed, historical religious ideologies have largely been replaced by 'secular religions' or 'religion substitutes'. The book is not another survey of past and present ideologies. It is an attempt to understand the cognitive, emotional and social roots of ideology and ideological fixation. It combines insights from evolutionary psychology regarding the nature of some of our deepest proclivities with a broad sweep through history. It proceeds from the Stone Age to the rise of civilization, the great religions and modernity, to a critique of fundamental factual premises that underlie some of the major debates dominating today's liberal democracies"--